Needing some urgent Spider Control in Sydney?

Author: Bruce Gow
“Here at A1 Pest Control we know your family is the primary concern and spiders can be a massive threat to any children or pets. Contact us ASAP and we’ll be happy to sort out a quote or appointment for you!”
Spider control is a very serious issue in a country like Australia where there are so many deadly species of spider. A1 Pest Control always engages in thorough treatments to ensure a big drop in any spider population. Our treatments are safe for children and pets and our technicians are trained and certified above and beyond the state requirements.  Don’t hesitate to contact us with questions or to book in. Below we have a testimonial from one of our many happy customers that has had a treatment done to get rid of spiders. Hills District is well known for it’s funnel web and red back populations so don’t wait ’till it’s too late!
SPRING TIME = SPIDER TIME?
During early spring you’ll start to see more creepy crawlies due to the increase in humidity and a more temperate habitat developing. Alas, along with the lovely summer sun Sydney also sees an increase in spider activity, much more alarming due to the fact that Sydney is home to some of the deadliest spiders in the world! The Redback Spider and the Sydney Funnel Web, though the Redback isn’t known for being aggressive, the Funnel Web is. We’ve heard many stories of these daring little spiders charging down on anyone getting to near their hole!
Spider control is always a tricky business as there aren’t any pesticides available that are powerful enough to kill them just by residual affect, at least none that won’t harm any people or pets as well. As such the best way to control spiders is to have regular pest sprays, we would recommend 6 monthly treatments, as well as going around your home biweekly and taking down any webbing that is sighted. This makes it a lot harder for spiders to develop into a large infestation or serious issue without having to spend a fortune on pest control every other week.
Another trick for taking care of Funnel Web spiders is to mix up boiling water and dish washing detergent. This mixture is then poured down any Funnel Web holes, after which you stomp down on the entrance to the hole to prevent them from charging out at you. This is a fairly harsh approach to controlling these critters but they do pose a serious threat, especially to younger children and pets.
Don’t take the risk, organize professional spider control today! 0417 251 911 | bruce@a1pestcontrol.com.au

Are you looking for expert spider control? Australia harbours several hundreds of different spider species which means they’re a common find in the average Aussie back yard. The majority of these insects are harmless, though some might give you a painful bite there are others – such as the Red Back, White Tailed and Funnel Web spiders – which can severely harm someone who receives their bite.

Not many people would are fans of spiders, so regardless of whether they’re harmful or not, we prefer being safe rather than sorry and keeping all spiders away from our home! This whole process becomes a breeze when you get your local pest expert to annually treat your home for spider control. If you’re a parent of young children who might be at risk or you’re not to keen on spiders yourself then yearly spider control treatments could already be part of your routine however, there are still a few things you yourself can do around the house to make it less appealing to spiders:

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Make sure not to store or stack things against the outside of the outer walls of your home. If you’ve been keeping an eye out for spiders you would’ve noticed that Red Backs in particular love these dark little corners. Wear protective gloves when you clean up these areas and take care when moving items as it might disturb and aggravate any resident spiders.

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Garage and shed owners should take the time to keep both neat and tidy – spiders prefer constructing their webs between and around static items so having stacks of boxes and unused paraphernalia are often their favourite places to set up their cobwebs. They are interested in quiet and peaceful areas that are dark, thus garden sheds that aren’t used often are an ideal spot for them to hang out. Maybe it’s time for a spring clean!

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It is important to note that spiders feed on other insects thus taking the initiative to manage other insect communities on your property can help with spider control. You can also consult a pest control specialist for advice regarding other pest populations on your property.

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During the break between your spider control treatments, you might want to consider using commercial surface spray in places that you know spiders tend to reside.

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Ensure that your windows are properly fitted with fly screens, and in case you are without fly screens, look into the costs involved to install them. Windows without these screens are easy access points for spiders.

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After your home undergoes a spider control treatment, take a week before removing the remaining webs. This interim allows for the baby spiders, newly hatched, to crawl through the webs and encounter the poison. Using a vacuum to suck up the webs is the easiest and fastest way to get rid of the webs, it’s important to also spray inside the bag with a surface spray before disposing of it.

Spiders have millennia of evolution on their side and can therefore be a bit of a mission to get rid of as they’ve become quite smart. But perseverance and persistence pays off in the end – paying attention to the outside of your house, keeping it clear of rubbish and clutter, cleaning outdoor furniture often and having a pest control expert come out annually to treat the spiders will definitely minimize the number of spiders hanging around your property.

Sydney Funnel-Web Spider

If you’re trying to figure out whether a hole in the ground might be a Funnel-Web burrow then you need to pay attention to the presence of irregular spider web “trip lines” surrounding the opening to the burrow. These burrows are usually found in places that are moist or clammy and dark such as rockeries, thick shrubbery, fallen logs and piles of leaves. A small, tidy hole which is surrounded by a silk collar that doesn’t extend beyond 10MM from the rim of the hole could be the home of a trapdoor spider (a common Brown Trapdoor Spider won’t have a ‘door’ at the entrance to it’s burrow). Other residents of holes could be mouse spiders, wolf spiders and other insects (most often cicadas and ants.)

Female Funnel-webs rarely exit their burrow, but they can be roused by excavating, removing ground clutter or gardening. They could also be driven out by extended periods of rain. The male Funnel-web on the other hand often exits the burrow to look for females during the summer and autumn seasons, this occurs predominantly during the night time. You are most likely to encounter a roaming spider after a period of wet weather.

Precautions

When in areas that are known to have a high concentration of Funnel-webs there are a few measures you can follow that will reduce the risk of getting bitten. Roaming spiders can get access to your house at floor level, commonly sneaking in underneath a door. You can fit weather strips or make use of a draft excluder to block this as an entry point. If you the area surrounding your house is cleared it would also be less appealing for Funnel-webs to construct their burrows in that area.

Within the home, Funnel-web spiders will look for a place to stay where they won’t dry out.
Consequently it’s essential to check clothes, shoes and bedding that are found either on the floor or close to the floor for signs of spiders. This also applies to any clothes that are left outside or near camp sites where Funnel-webs are common.

Funnel-webs are often found in swimming pools. These spiders are capable of trapping small pockets of air on the hairs around their abdominal area which assists them with floating and breathing. They have been known to survive around 24-30 hours like this and therefore it cannot be assumed that a spider at the bottom of a pool is dead.

The Red-back Spider

Redbacks are commonly found in urban premises in areas such as the garden shed, beneath logs or stairs/steps and surrounding swimming pools or rubbish piles. Their webs are built in dry and sheltered sites, commonly the upper part of the web will be hidden away from sunlight. The spider would be found hiding in a funnel-shaped cone at the top end of the web. The bottom part of the web will consist mostly of a clutter of vertical threads that are sticky – intended for catching prey.

Treatment

Surface sprays when directly aimed at Redbacks will be lethal. This treatment is to be exercised often as more of these spiders are often carried in on a wind.

One efficient way of managing Redbacks is to regularly inspect areas that would be ideal as Redback habitats, looking out for the spiders or their telltale webbing. You can remove the whole set up, spider included, by putting a stick into the back of the web and then rolling it which catches up the webbing, spiders and any egg-sacs inside it. Taking this step allows you to notice when new spiders have turned up by the presence of fresh webs.

Precautions

Redbacks are sly spiders and rarely seen as they mostly construct their webs under a form of shelter. Wearing gloves while checking any areas you might suspect of Redback activity is a must.

The White-tailed Spider

Due to the fact that White-tailed spiders don’t make a web, there aren’t any specific indicators to look for, apart from the spiders in question. These are commonly found within a bathroom or laundry.

Treatment

White-tails are a common nomadic species, so pest management regarding those yields short term results. When there is a population of these in your region they will most likely return to your house after the surface sprays and pesticides wear off.

Precautions

If you are aware that there are White-tailed spiders on your property then you should take steps to check your clothing and shoes before wearing any. It’s also a good idea to inspect laundry and linens for these spiders. White tiles are most active during night-time and any that you encounter during the night should be removed from your home.

Other Spiders

Other spider species are usually not cause for pest control. If you come across an orb-weaver (spider) that is constantly building a web over a path you frequent then you can move it to a safer area.

Widow Spiders and Black House spiders are shy species and they will commonly hide and retreat into the rear of their web network if they are disrupted. Their webs are commonly found in the nooks and crannies of windows, they could also have a funnel-shaped cavity where you would find the spider sheltering. You can remove these making use of a broom or a stick, similarly to Redbacks, and then deposit the spiders outdoors.

It might be helpful to note that Black House Spiders are often killing and eating Redback spiders and having them around can make an impact on the chances of a Redback population developing on your property. It is important to take into account that White-tails favour them as food.

Spiders known as “Wandering” are best to be dealt with on a case by case basis when you encounter them. When they reside in the garden they shouldn’t be handled and if necessary removed from your home by use of a broom. These spiders are quick but not commonly aggressive.

A jumping Huntsman or one found on your car unexpectedly can be quite unnerving. Make sure to keep car windows close and doors well secured when your car is parked – especially overnight. If you notice a spider inside your car but can’t catch it you can encourage it to leave by parking in a warm spot.

Brown Trapdoor Spiders, Mouse spiders as well Funnel-webs are oft found in and around swimming pools, or they are encountered when disturbed during garden or construction activity. Of the trapdoor species, the males are known to wander during the autumn and summer seasons. As stated earlier their burrows have a tidy silky collar around the lip without any “trip lines” stretching outward.

Male mouse spiders are more frequently encountered later in the year – as they wander from April t June – and are quite active during the day. Males two of the species most commonly found in NSW are easy to recognise by either having a red head and jaw area (Red-headed Mouse Spider), or alternatively a pale blue-white patch in front of their abdominal area (Eastern Mouse Spider). The females of both these species are either dark brown or black. The Red-headed female Mouse Spider is known to make a burrow that has two trapdoors at the entrance; both are angled at right angles toward each other.

The same precautions observed for Funnel-webs are to be followed for Trapdoors. Due to the fact that they are oftentimes confused for the Funnel-web, it’s important to take caution when bitten and follow the correct procedures, especially when a child is involved. Trapdoor’s aren’t considered a high risk to humans whereas Mouse Spider venom on the other hand can be highly toxic and any bites not be taken lightly. When possible, the spider should be captured to identify it correctly, then the appropriate measure of spider control can be followed to manage the relevant spider species to a safer level.

First Aid

For any spider, apart from Funnel-webs and Mouse Spiders, the only essential first aid measures are to apply an ice pack to relieve pain and swelling when necessary. If you find that the symptoms persist and become more severe then seek medical attention. When bitten by a Redback spider always seek out medical assistance. For individuals bitten by a Funnel-web or Mouse Spider a ‘pressure bandage’ should be applied to the area ASAP while the victim is kept calm and medical attention pursued.

“I know that spiders can be a huge nuisance and a danger around kids or pets. So ring me up on 0417 251 911 ASAP and we can organize an appointment or discuss your spider problem.” – Bruce Gow

Or send us a message if you have a problem with spider control.

TIP:

To reduce spider populations make a habit of regularly having a look around your home and take down any webbing you notice using a long stick or a broom. Do the same inside and use a broom or vacuum to get rid of the webs. This will have a big affect on the amount of spiders you encounter.

To eliminate most types of spider species from areas of human population for any period of time today is almost close to impossible. This is no invisible wonder barrier that spiders just crawl across and die. Though that is the perception of most people.

They don’t even hang around the same nesting sites as in other areas of pest control. So how can you get of spiders safely?

The “trick” is to contact all of the known breeding areas and treat with a low toxic, non-fuming spray applied by a pest control expert. The worst thing you could do is to try and eliminate spiders by spraying aerosols bought from places like Bunnings, Woolworths or Coles and expect to get great results.

Dangerous poisoning may occur to yourself or the environment. This may be more dangerous than the actual spider threat!

wolf-spider

New spiders will quickly recolonize an area if the inhabitants are killed off. Spiderlings or baby spiders get spread quickly through an environment in great numbers by using their webs like tiny parachutes and float on slight breezes to distant new areas.

Here’s some tips that we have put together over the years to lessen your chances of being bitten:

Always wear shoes in the garden areas especially during the night. When you are gardening, make sure you are protected by wearing sensible shoes, preferably long trousers and long sleeved shirt. It is strongly recommended that you wear thick gloves to protect yourself from spider bites and other bugs that may cause you harm. To prevent spiders from entering under you doors, consider fitting weather strips and installing plastic insect excluders.

You can purchase Weep Hole Screens (Weepa Protector)  from Bunnings at under $30 for a packet of 20.

Weep Hole Screens

Fitting fly-screens to windows and wall ventilators will prevent any climbing spiders from obtaining access. A cleared area around the house will discourage burrowing spiders from making burrows there.

It is a good idea to educate children to ‘look but don’t touch’ when they find any spiders, and for adults to obey the same rule. It is sensible to be respectful of spiders, rather than frightened of them.

funnel-web-spider

The Sydney Funnel-web Spider

Holes in your yard and garden area are caused by lots of different reasons, but if you spot silken strands strung out from holes about the same size as a fifty cent piece, it’s a good chance they are Funnel web spider trip lines. Look for their holes near trees, inside rockeries, under moist, shaded spots in your garden and around leaf litter. Silky lined holes with fine trip lines are a dead giveaway. Other possible hole owners include mouse spiders, wolf spiders or insects (most commonly cicadas or ants).

To read up on the Mouse Spider, often mistaken by their burrows for Funnel web, check out our article on the Mouse Spider.

The females of the Funnel-web species are quite happy living, breeding and giving birth inside her burrows by land excavations commenced through building construction in the area, heavy gardening or even may be driven out by inclement weather. Males of the Funnel-web species have been sighted hunting for females in summer and autumn, especially at night.

Precautions

In areas known to have Funnel-web populations, there are a number of precautions that can be taken to reduce the risk of bites. Wandering spiders can enter houses at ground level, often under a door. Fitting weather strips or using draft excluders can block this entry route. A cleared area around the house will discourage Funnel-webs from making burrows there.

Look out for Funnel-web Spiders in swimming pools and gardens near the pool side. Spiders have the ability to capture bubbles of air on their legs and body which helps them to both breath and float. They can live more than twenty four hours under water.

We have a more detailed and scientific article related to the Sydney Funnel-Web as well as other Funnel-Web species. Email Bruce at bruce@a1pestcontrol.com.au for more information.

redback-spider

The Red-back Spider

Redbacks are very common in Sydney and may be found lurking inside and outside of garden sheds, under flower pots, stairs and around swimming pools. They are very messy looking webs and usually well hidden from view. This species of spider is very common in Sydney yards and it is common to find them on pool equipment and children’s toys that are left outside. (We have more information on the Redback Spider, read it up if you wanna learn more about this infamous spider.)
Recently a customer enquired about whether red-backs become more aggressive when they have recently laid eggs or when they are around their egg sacs and although it is hard to gauge the occurrences there are definitely reports of female red backs charging people and insects that get near their egg sacs. Whether this is in self defence or in defence of their egg sacs is uncertain.
When it comes to red backs the female is definitely the more aggressive of the two and the majority of serious bites come from the female red back. Even though they have such an infamous reputation they tend to avoid contact with humans and are often seen scurrying behind or beneath some rubble or debris around the home. Bites are commonly found on the neck and extremities, due to the spider hiding in helmets, gloves, boots, and other working gear that might be left outside, eventually resulting in a bite when someone dons the gear and encounters a red back!

Treatment

Surface sprays applied directly will kill Redback Spiders. However treatment must be repeated often to deal with spiders which are carried in on the wind.

An effective way of controlling Redbacks is to carry out regular inspections of suitable Redback habitats, searching for spiders and their webs. The spiders may be removed by pushing a stick into the back of the web and twisting the web, spider and any egg sacs around it. If all the webs on a property are removed, new arrivals will quickly become apparent by the presence of new webs.

Precautions

As Redbacks generally make their webs under some form of shelter, they are often not seen. Check any potential web sites before putting your hands there. Wear gloves when gardening.
The White-tailed Spider (we have a detailed article here)
As White-tailed Spiders do not make webs, there are no signs to look for, other than the presence of the spiders themselves. They are often found in bathrooms and laundries.
Treatment
These spiders are both nomadic and common, so any control measure will be only a short term solution. If there is a population of these spiders in your area, then they are likely to re-enter houses after the effects of insecticides have worn off.
Precautions
If you know that White-tailed Spiders are present in your area, check your shoes and clothing before wearing them. It is very common for them to wander inside your home under doors and windows and even get carried inside after making their way into clothing hanging on outside lines.  Be sure to shake all clothes briskly before placing them in the basket and even check underneath the basket or trolley if it is your routine to leave it outside. Of course it is always best to take these inside rather than leaving extra hiding spaces for all types of outdoor pests.
Other Spiders
There is usually no need to control other species of spider. For example if a non-poisonous orb-weaving spider spins webs where you walk, simply move both spider and webs to another location. (Read more on Orb Weavers!)

spider-chart980

Black House Spiders are poisonous but give a painful bite if disturbed. Webs are often made in the corners of windows, and may have a funnel-shaped retreat in which the spider shelters. The web may be removed using a broom, or a stick (the same method as for Redbacks), and the spider deposited outside.

It should be noted that Black House Spiders are known to kill and eat Redback Spiders, and that their presence may reduce the chances of large Redback populations becoming established in your area. On the other hand, they are a favoured food of the White-tailed Spider.

Wandering spiders such as wolf spiders (article on Wolf Spiders)and huntsman spiders are best dealt with on an individual basis when encountered. They should be left alone if in the garden, or removed from a house using a broom. They are fast moving, but not normally aggressive. (Read up on this interesting spider here!)

Huntsman spiders can be disconcerting when they jump off walls to make their escape, or appear unexpectedly in your car. Make sure car windows and doors are closed when the car is parked – particularly at night. If a spider is found in a car but evades capture, it can be encouraged to leave by parking the car in a warm place. (We have more info and tips on the Huntsman Spider)

Like Funnel-webs, Brown Trapdoor Spiders and mouse spiders are often found in swimming pools, or unearthed during gardening or construction work.

Male mouse spiders are more common later in the year – wandering from April to June – and tend to be active by day. Males of the two species common in New South Wales are easily recognisable by having either a red head and jaw area (Red-headed Mouse Spider), or a pale blue-white patch in front of the abdomen (Eastern Mouse Spider). All female mouse spiders are dark brown to black. The female Red-headed Mouse Spider makes a deep burrow closed above by two trapdoors set a right angles to each other.

Precautions for both trapdoor and mouse spiders are the same as for Funnel-webs. As they are often confused with the Funnel-web, it is wise to treat any bite with caution, especially if the bite is on a child. Trapdoor spider venom is not considered to be dangerous to humans. The venom of mouse spiders, on the other hand, may be highly toxic, and bites should be taken seriously. If possible, capture the spider and have it positively identified, then have appropriate spider control to get populations down to a safe level.

We have a more in depth article regarding the Trapdoor Spider species that you can read for more specific habits, characteristics and distribution of this spider species.

First Aid
For all spiders, except Funnel-web spiders and mouse spiders, the only first aid necessary is the application of an ice-pack to relieve pain, if needed. always seek prompt medical care from professionals, especially for Redback Spiders and Funnel-webs, which could be lethal for they very young, elderly or sick persons. For all spider bites, consider using pressure bandages, kept the victim calm and comfortable as possible while arranging for an ambulance or other medical emergency services.
Call Bruce on 0417 251 911 email him for more information at bruce@a1pestcontrol.com.au or send us a message if you have a problem with spider control.
Australian Spider Chart

australian-spiders

SPIDERS (ORDER ARANEIDA)

COMMONLY OCCURING SPIDERS IN AUSTRALIA

  • FAMILY IDIOPPIDAE:

This family is important to pest controllers, since it contains the trapdoor spiders that belong to the genera Arbanitis and Misgolas.

Trapdoor spiders live in holes in the ground, but some species do not necessarily have the cover or trap over the hole that their name implies. Arbanitis spp. do. The most often encountered trapdoor spider around Sydney is the Sydney brown trapdoor, Misgolas rapax. However, some other species look similar; and where a positive identification is required, the specimen should be referred to a specialist, most often in a museum.

  • FAMILY LAMPONIDAE:

The white-tailed spider, Lampona cylindrata, belongs to this family. It is a dark grey to black spider with a characteristic white cone on the end of its abdomen. Inside homes, it may be found on walls particularly in the bathroom. It is also found outdoors under loose bark of trees and in leaf litter. It is not an aggressive spider, but like many other spiders, it will bite if touched or placed on the body inside clothing. It was once reported that the bites lead to necrosis of the tissue surrounding the bite, but this theory has been found incorrect.

 

  • FAMILY ACTINOPODIDAE:

Mouse spiders also live in holes in the ground, which may have lids. The male is a wanderer even during the day. Mouse spiders are distributed throughout Australia. In the redheaded mouse spider, Missulena insignis, the forepart of the cephalothorax of the male is red – hence its name. The legs of the female are relatively short compared with those of the male. Female mouse spiders are often confused with the funnel web because of their similar size and shiny black cephalothorax. The eastern mouse spider, M. bradleyi, is often found in swimming pools in coastal NSW.

                                                                                                                            

 

  • FAMILY HEXATHELIDAE:

This family contain the funnel web spiders and their relatives. Spiders in the genera Bymainiella and Aname may be confused with funnel webs on casual examination. Funnel webs are well known for their toxic bites, particularly the male. There are many species in this group other than the Sydney funnel web, Atrax robustus. Hadronyche cerberea, the tree funnel web spider, and Hadronyche formidabilis, the Northern Rivers funnel web spider, are all well-known species and are considered toxic. The male of the Sydney funnel web is often found wandering in summer and autumn when searching for the female. It leaves its funnel shaped webbed burrow when mature and may enter houses. The female spends its entire life in the burrow underground, leaving only to catch prey and mate. The male dies soon after mating, but the female usually lives for some time. Sustained wet weather or the use of insecticides often cause the male to enter houses, garages and sheds, where it may seek shelter in footwear or clothing. It’s a good reason to habitually bang shoes together and ensure they are empty before putting them on.

  • FAMILY DEINOPIDAE

The net-casting spiders belong to this family. The most often encountered species is Deinopis subrufa, the common net-casting spider. They usually hang in vegetation, and when an insect passes within their range, they throw a net, held loosely between their two pairs of front legs, over it. Some species have nets that may expand to 50 mm. Their colouration and appearance blend with the vegetation where they occur, making them difficult to see. They are of no concern to pest technicians, because they are entirely useful and their webs are located in vegetation and not on houses.

  • FAMILY SCYTODIDAE

This family contains the spitting spiders, Scytodes spp., so called because of their habit of producing a fluid that they squirt onto their prey.

  • FAMILY SICARIIDAE

This family contains the fiddleback spider, Loxosceles rufescens. The fiddleback spider was introduced to Australia over 100 years ago, probably from Europe. It has been recorded in South Australia, but since it is rather timid and not obvious, it is likely to be well established. It is about 6-8 mm long. Bites are rare because of its timid nature, but when bites do occur, there is illness and the area of the bite takes some time to heal.

  • FAMILY ARANEIDAE

Many often-encountered, web-spinning spiders belong to this family. The nephilas, known as golden orb-weavers, are recognised by their golden webs. The female is about 20 mm long, has rather a bulbous abdomen and is often seen in bushland along Australia’s eastern coast. The female of the Nephila maculate, which occurs in many other countries also (e.g. India, China), has a more elongated body, about 35-40 mm long. The male of all species is much smaller than the female, about 5-6 mm long. These males are often found at the edge of the female’s web or near her. Quite large insects such as cicadas become caught in the webs of these spiders. The scorpiontailed spider,  Arachnura higginsii, also occurs in this family. It is characterised by its abdomen, which is drawn out into a tail and often has an obvious process of a different colour on the end of it.

The leafcurling spider, Phonognatha graeffei, lives in curled leaves or paper suspended in its web. The species is often encountered in gardens, and the female is about 6-8 mm long.

The St. Andrew’s cross spider, Argiope keyserlingii, belongs to this family. It is a colourful species that makes a cross or stabilimentum in its web. The spider hangs head downwards with its legs in pairs along the arms of the cross. The female spider is about 12 mm long and larger than the male. The species is considered harmless.

The garden spiders or garden orbweavers also belong to Family Araneidae. There are several species of the genus Eriophora, the most often encountered being E. transmarina. They construct webs between buildings and shrubs and panic some people and children who walk into them. They are often colourful spiders and are not considered to be toxic.

The two-spined spiders also belong to this family. The colourful species Poecilopachys Australasia is often encountered in foliage.

The angling spiders or bolas spiders are placed in this family. These spiders do not make webs but produce a thread about 5-6 cm long with a sticky globule on the end. With this they catch small insects that pass in their range and draw the globule and insect in to them. They occur on foliage and are harmless.  They belong to the genus Ordgarius and include the magnificent and hairy imperial spiders.

Family Araneidae also contains many other spiders belonging to several genera, some of which are beautifully camouflaged to blend in with their environment. However, these are harmless.

  • FAMILY THOMISIDAE

This family contains the crab spiders and flower spiders with some ant-mimicking species.

  • FAMILY CLUBIONIDAE

Other ant-mimicking spiders belong to this family. They resemble ants for protection against predators. Also known as sac spiders.

  • FAMILY THERAPHOSIDAE

This family contains the very large spiders, Selenocosmia spp., the so called bird-catching (eating) spiders, which occur in Queensland. They are also known as brush-footed trapdoor spiders. They live in the ground and catch quite large insects and lizards. They are often about 50-60 mm long.

  • FAMILY DESIDAE

The well-known black house spider, Badumna insignis, belongs to this family. Much of a pest technicians work in country areas and even in cities involves the treatment of this spider to reduce its web production, which disfigures the buildings. The female is dark brown to black and 15-18 mm long, while the male is only 8-10 mm long. In the wild they construct their webs in the loose bark of trees, but around buildings they make their webs in window frames, in corners, under eaves – in fact, in any place where they have security. The web is a mat with an obvious, roughly round, entrance hole. Their bites cause some pain and swelling, but the patient soon recovers. Medical advice should always be sought as there could be an allergic reaction. Where insecticidal treatment is to be done, it is best to wait until late spring or early summer when all the young have emerged. There are several species of Badumna, and these vary in size, colouration and location of the webs.

  

  • FAMILY PHOLCIDAE

This family contains the daddy-longlegs spiders. These can be confused with harvestmen, which have no constriction between the cephalothorax and abdomen. Harvestmen are not true spiders but belong to Order Opiliones.

The most often encountered daddy-longlegs spider is Pholcus phalangioides found in houses, cupboards and subfloor areas. Technicians are often called in to control these loose-web spinning spiders. The female is about 7-9 mm long and is characterised by its very long legs. Apart from the nuisance value of their webs, they do not harm and are non-toxic.

  • FAMILY THERIDIIAE

There are many species in this family, but the best known is the toxic redback, Latrodectus hasselti, the female of which has caused deaths and illness from its bite. Many bites occur on male genitals, as these spiders construct their webs across the seats of outside and often ‘longdrop’ unsewered toilets. The species is found all across Australia, but the female is most often encountered. It hides in stacked articles and rubbish during the day. Males occur in numbers around the female’s web usually in late summer and autumn. The male is small, about 3-4 mm long, and does not bite. The female is about 12-15 mm, black, velvety and has a bright red or orange stripe on the upper surface and pale or red area on the underside. Sometimes the female may be entirely black and be mistaken for another species. The deadly American black widow is the same species as Australia’s redback, but is considered to be a geographic variant. The New Zealand ‘katipo’ or night stinger is also a related species.

An antivenene is available for the treatment of bites of this spider.

  • FAMILY LYCOSIDAE

This family contains the wolf spiders, which are mostly in the genus Lycosa. All species are ground dwellers, making their holes in the ground or living in the leaf-litter layer. Most species have a mottled  appearance, the male being of lighter build than the female and having more obvious and swollen palps.

The most frequently encountered species in coastal NSW is the garden wolf spider, Lycosa godeffroyi. The size of wolf spiders varies, but L. godeffroyi female is about 20-25 mm long and the male 15-20 mm.

  • FAMILY HETEROPODIDAE

This family contains the huntsmen spiders, which are also, and erroneously, known as triantelopes. These spiders often enter houses and may be found on walls. Their natural habitat is under damaged or loose bark of trees. They feed on insects and other arthropods. Some species of the genus Isopeda are quite large, the female being about 40-45 mm long and the male only slightly less. Their front two pairs of legs are longer than their rear two pairs of legs. They are hairy and flattened and able to move sideways very rapidly. They are not toxic and seldom bite, despite their fearsome appearance. There are many species belonging to such genera as Delena.

  • FAMILY SALTICIDAE

This family contains mostly small spiders whose front legs, often the front two pairs, are more robustly developed for jumping. They spin mats of web, but they often stray in search of food and are encountered in many different places. They are harmless, mostly shy, and some species are colourful. Some species mimic ants.

SPIDER CONTROL AND AVOIDANCE OF BITES

Within the broad range of urban pest management activites, the control of ground-dwelling spiders (e.g. funnel webs) has involved a serious misuse of pesticides in the ‘blanket-spraying’ treatment of insecticides. Control of ground-dwelling spiders relies on direct contact of the spider with the insecticide. Treatments that attempt such direct contact are likely to be time-consuming and may miss less obvious burrows and spiders, but this procedure is preferable to complete soaking of the area, which would destroy many useful and non-pest species.

Because technicians are often called upon for ground-dwelling spider control and in order to afford the client some ‘peace of mind’, it is essential that some advice be given in relation to the prevention of bites. Advice given may include:

  1. Wear gloves when gardening and handling soil or rubbish.
  2. Wear sensible footwear when walking outside, particularly at night, when most ground-dwelling spiders are active.
  3. Where extensive excavations, landscaping, digging or gardening has occurred nearby, be alert for disturbed ground-dwelling spiders, which may enter buildings.
  4. Do not leave toys, clothes and other such articles on the ground overnight. Wandering spiders may use them as a temporary resting site.
  5. Be particularly alert for wandering male funnel webs during the warmer months, (Jan to Mar). It is their mating season, and they may wander into yards and buildings in search of a mate.

SYMPTOMS AND TREATMENT OF BITES

If, despite control measures and precautionary activity, a funnel web or redback spider bite does occur, it may be treated as shown in table 1.2.

Table 1.2 – Symptoms and treatment of arachnid bites

Funnel web spider Redback spider Australian paralysis tick Scabies mite
Symptoms:

1.  Pain in area of the bite; numbness.

2. Nausea and vomiting.

3. Profuse sweating and collapse.

4. Frothing at the mouth, because of excess salivation.

5. Patient may turn blue because of breathing difficulty.

6. Cramps and pain in limbs or abdomen.

7. Patient may become delirious.

8. Twitching of facial muscles, contractions of limbs, reflexes sluggish, eyes fail to respond to light; coma.

Symptoms:

1. Stinging sensation at bite although no sign may be evident.

2.  Swelling around bite and paleness; pain and tenderness.

3.  Stiffness around bite area.

4. Pain in lower limbs due to absorption of venom in lymphatic system.

5. Patient shows shock symptoms: pallor, weakness, profuse sweating, nausea and vomiting.

6. Some cases show paralysis of lower limbs.

Symptoms:

1. Headache, particularly when tick is in the scalp.

2.  Inability to read or focus.

3. General malaise.

4. Blurring of vision and weakness in limbs, increasing to paralysis after 4 days.

5.  Muscles of respiration become involved, with breathing difficulty.

Symptoms:

1.  Itching under skin at night; mites mine in upper epidermis of skin.

First aid treatment:

1. Remove any tight clothing and make patient comfortable.

2. Apply firm pressure over area of bite using a broad roller bandage. Cover bite site, and extend bandage to both the extremity of the limb and as high up the limb as possible and keep movement of that part of the body to a minimum.

3. Remove patient to a hospital ASAP.

4. Avoid stimulants; no liquids taken orally.

5. Warmth to wound produces pain.

First aid treatment:

1.Remove any tight clothing and make patient comfortable.

2. Apply a cold pack to the bite being careful not to freeze tissue.

3. Seek medical assistance promptly.

First aid treatment:

1. Remove the tick with a pair of fine forceps – no chemicals.

2. Do not press the tick body. Merely grasp the head and mouth parts; move sideways.

3.  If symptoms are advanced or tick is in auditory meotus or any other inaccessible position, refer to a hospital.

First aid treatment:

1. Attention to personal hygiene.

2. Patient to wash. Seek medical advice.

3. Wash clothing by boiling, and iron creases.

4. Local application of ointment.

 

Wolf Spiders

Lycosidae

Article author: Bruce Gow

Distribution:

Encountered across all of Australia.

Identification and Habits:

There are many species within the Wolf Spider family, varying in size from 1 to 8 cm and have a robust body. Regardless they’re very agile hunters and live in either leaf litter or their burrows which are often found in gardens or on and in lawns. The Wolf Spiders have 8 eyes of which the 4 largest are arranged in a square formation on the top of the head. Their body colours are commonly quite boring with most variegated patterns in the colours brown, grey, black and white (often with lines that radiate from the carapace and a scroll like pattern on the abdomen). Their underside is black or grey and occasionally has white markings; the jaws are also known to bear an orange spot on the sides.

Bite:

Symptoms from a Wolf Spider bite are generally quite minor – such as pain around the bit and/or itching. Less often the symptoms can include swelling, prolonged pain, dizziness and a rapid pulse accompanied by nausea.

First Aid:

Medical attention should be sought out if symptoms are found to be persistent.

A1 Pest Control has a stellar reputation established over 30 years in the pest control business. We take care of any pest issues and would be happy to help you with a last minute appointment or quote! Ring us on 0417 251 911.

“We’ll be happy to take care of a pest problem; our staff is trained and certified in blasting and exterminating all varieties of pest!” – Bruce Gow